SCRIPPS OCEANOGRAPHY
  • University of California-San Diego
  • 9500 Gilman Drive
  • La Jolla CA 92093-0532 USA
  • Tel: 1-858-534-0000
  • Fax: 1-858-534-0000

SIO 209: Aerosol-Cloud Interactions


Fall 2003

Instructor: Lynn Russell
Tuesdays 11-12:50 (NH 400)
Seminar-Reading Course (2 Credits)

Summary:

Aerosol particles from pollution modify the number and size of droplets in clouds, leading to increased reflection of light back to space. A striking example of this phenomenon is illustrated in the ship tracks that crisscross the stratus cloud layer over the Pacific Ocean. This modification of the Earth's radiative balance by human activities represents an exciting area of current interdisciplinary research. This literature-based course will highlight 50 years of progress in understanding the role of aerosol particles as nuclei for cloud droplets.Key concepts including the Kohler curve, the Twomey effect, and the Hoppel minimum will be developed in student presentations. Important recent advances including laboratory, field, and satellite measurements will be reviewed critically in weekly discussions.

Reading List:

  1. H. Kohler 1936 "The Nucleus in and the Growth of Hygroscopic Droplets." Trans. Faraday Soc. 1152-1161
  2. S. Twomey 1977 "The Influence of Pollution on the Shortwave Albedo of Clouds." J. Atmos. Sci. 34: 1149-1152.
  3. W.A. Hoppel, J.W. Fitzgerald, G.M. Frick, R.E. Larson and E.J. Mack 1990 "Aerosol Size Distributions and Optical Properties Found in the Marine Boundary Layer Over the Atlantic Ocean." J. Geophys. Res. 95: 3659-3686.
  4. B.A. Albrecht 1989 "Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness." Science. 245: 1227-1230.
  5. R.J. Charlson, J.E. Lovelock, M.O. Andreae, S.G. Warren 1987 "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmopsheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate." Science 326: 655-661.
  6. W.R. Leaitch, G.A. Isaac, J.W. Strapp, C.M. Banic, and H.A. Wiebe 1992 "The Relationship Between Cloud Droplet Number Concentrations and Anthropogenic Pollution -- Observations and Climatic Implications." J. Geophys. Res. 97: 2463-2474.
  7. T.M. Raymond and S.N. Pandis 2002 "Cloud activation of sincle component organic aerosol particles." J. Geophys. Res. DOI:10.1029/2002JD002159.
  8. A. Jones, D.L. Roberts, and A. Slingo 1994. "A climate model study of indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulphate aerosols." Nature 370: 450-453.
  9. P.Y. Chuang, R.J. Charlson, and J.H. Seinfeld 1997 "Kinetic limitations on droplet formation in clouds." Nature 390:594-596.

Presentations:

Presentation 1 - The Nucleus in and Growth of Hygroscopic Droplets, H. Kohler 1936 - Presentation by Jill Nephew and Odelle Lariviere
Presentation 2 - An Introduction to Twomey's Effect - Presentation by Guillaume Mauger and Aihua Zhu
Presentation 3 - Aerosol Size Distributions and Optical Properties Found in the Marine Boundary Layer Over the Atlantic Ocean - Presentation by James Everett and Nicole Mabante
Presentation 4 - The Relationship Betweeen Cloud Droplet Number Concentrations and Anthropogenic Pollution - Presentation by Guillaume Mauger and Jill Nephew
Presentation 5 - Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate - Presentation by John Holecek and Aihua Zhu
Presentation 6 - Not available.
Presentation 7 - Cloud activation of sincle component organic aerosol particles - Presentation by Odelle Lariviere and Ji Chen
Presentation 8 - A climate model study of indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols - Presentation by James Everett and Nicole Mabante